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Legends, Traditions, and Laws of the Iroquois, or Six Nations, and History of the Tuscarora Indians


For the earlier part of the history of school operations among the Tuscarora Indians, I can do no better than to give the report of Rev. John Elliot to the Secretary of War, in the year 1832, viz.:

To the Secretary of War:

“This will show the operations of the schools from their organization in 1805, to September 30, 1832.

“The first school among the Tuscaroras was taught by Rev. Mr. Homes, the first missionary. This, according to the best information, was in 1805. What amount has been expended, either from the fund of the society or by the Government, to sustain its operation, I am wholly unable to state. The Indians converted their Council House into one for public worship, and also one for school operations, until 1828, when, with a little assistance from abroad, they completed a convenient chapel, 28 x 38 feet, for publicworship. In 1831 they raised and finished a frame school house 24 x 20 feet, at an expense probably of $200. This sum, with the exception of $8, the Indians obtained by contributions among themselves.

“We have but one teacher, whose whole time is engrossed in the concerns of the school (Mrs. Elliot and myself are occasionally employed). Her name is Elizabeth Stone, and the compensation she receives is only the means of support, the same that we receive. Ninety scholars have, to our certain knowledge, entered the school since its commencement. One of the number is the principal Chief and stated interpreter, who can communicate in three languages. Eighty of this number have attended the school within the last six years. Sixty have left with the prospect, in most cases, of exerting a happy influence. This influence is the result of a belief in, and adherence to, the doctrines of the Gospel. Since they have embraced the principals of Christianity in full their progress in industry and temperance has been strikingly visible and rapid. But few of the number now sip ardent spirits—not more than one in twenty.

“The young men are enterprising; some have large, convenient barns and comfortable dwellings, fine fields of wheat, corn, oats, &c.; others are beginning to plant orchards; they now depend on the cultivation of their lands for a livelihood.”

The second teacher who taught the school among the Tuscaroras was the son of Rev. Mr. Gray, the second missionary, in the years from 1808 to 1813, and was then followed by a young man by the name of Mr. Youngs. These were the first three teachers who broke in and shed the light of education upon the dark minds of our forefathers. The schools were supported by the missionary societies in the same order as in the different transfers that were made concerning the support of the missionaries. In the year 1858 was the last transfer made from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission to the State of New York, by whom they are now sustained. There were many changes made in the teachers, all of whose names, with dates, in the order in which they came, I am not able to record; but I will record such names as I have been able to obtain which came under the appointment of missionary teachers, to wit:

Miss Elizabeth Stone, from 1831 to 1837.

Miss Lucia G. Smith, 1836.

Miss Hannah T. Whitcomb, from Oct. 5, 1839, to Aug. 25, 1849.

Miss Mary J. T. Thayer, from 1849 to 1854.

Miss Cinderella Britto, from 1853 to 1854.

Miss Abigail Peck, from 1853 to 1858.

Assistant teachers not having regular appointment.

Miss Emily Parker, 1831.

Miss Burt, 1837.

Miss Nancy Wood, 1856.

Miss Maria Colton, 1857.

Miss Eleanor B. Lyon, 1857.

Under the New York State supervision:

Miss Abigail Peck, from 1853 to 1858.

Miss Mary A. Smith, native.

Miss Robinson.

Miss Emily Chew, native.

Miss Pomeroy.

Miss Margaret Eddy.

Miss Helen Gansvort, native.

Mr. William Sage, seven winters.

Mr. Philip T. Johnson, native.

In the year of 1850 there was another school house built by the natives under the proposition of Miss Mary J. F. Thayer. I have here a brief history of her labors among the Tuscaroras, from her own writings, which is very interesting, to wit:


At the invitation of Rev. G. Rockwood (then the ordained missionary at Tuscarora) Miss M. J. F. Thayer commenced her labors among the Tuscaroras as teacher on April 30, 1849, in the old school-house opposite Mr. Rockwood’s house, receiving from the American Board one dollar and fifty cents per week, besides her board. There were but few scholars, and these were very irregular in their attendance. Miss T. visited the parents and tried to get them interested. She finally came to the conclusion that time and money were thrown away on that little day school, and drew up a paper, which was read to the Tuscaroras at their New Year’s feast, January 1, 1850, in which she detailed her plans and wishes, asking their aid in executing them. Their response was cordial and hearty. They resolved to build a new school-house; the site was selected on a corner near Isaac Miller’s, and the people, as one man, went to work with great alacrity, under the leadership of one of their chiefs, Wm. Mt. Pleasant, and had, before the next New Year’s, a snug house, 18 x 24 feet, well finished, furnished with two stoves, and a large pile of wood prepared. Miss Thayer commenced teaching at the new station (which she was pleased to call Mt. Hope) Jan. 14, 1851, having forty scholars the first day. On Saturday, Jan. 12, before school began, a church meeting was held at the new station. There were thirty persons present, and they voted to hold prayer meetings there every Wednesday evening.

Feb. 20 Miss T. wrote—“Fifty is the average attendance at school. Scholars happy and bright and very eager to learn Nearly every one has bought a new spelling book. The prayer meetings are well attended; Sabbath evenings there are fifty present, Wednesdays, thirty. They conduct these meetings without their pastor, usually. Christians are being revived; there is an increasing spirit of prayer: the women have begun to pray; we had a precious meeting last Sabbath evening.”

In March there was a great deal of sickness (typhoid fever), of which several died. The school was interrupted for a few days.

May 2, she wrote—“My school flourishes. It is difficult to say which seem the happier, the children or their teacher. I have five little girls boarding with me. As the ‘boarding school fund’ is exhausted, I am obliged to meet all the expenses from my own allowance” It might be stated that Miss Thayer never received a “formal appointment” from the American Board, because her health was so poor, but she was employed and paid by them. After she went to the new schoolhouse they paid her one hundred and fifty dollars a year, and she found everything. By “boarding school fund” is meant money received by Miss Thayer from friends of hers who were interested in her work and sent her, from time to time, small sums of money and sometimes articles of food and clothing for the children,deficiencies she met from her own allowance.

Thus the work went on. Several children were anxious to become inmates of the teacher’s family. Celia Green, Elizabeth Cusick, Ann and Mary Henry, Susan Patterson and Sarah Mt. Pleasant were the favored ones.

Sept. 10, 1851, Miss T. wrote—“My school is small now, owing to the prevalence of the measles. The little girls living with me being attacked, their mothers have taken them home.” Under the same date adds— “Two weeks ago I passed a sleepless night, contemplating the deplorable condition of the young people here, agonizing and with tears wrestling in prayer for them. Last week I learned that three young women had decided to forsake there evil ways, repenting of their sins, and looking to Jesus for salvation. Two of them came forward at the church meeting last Saturday, and offered themselves as candidates for admission to the church. One of the young women stayed with me last Sabbath night (this was Louisa Henry). She gave evidence of a change of heart. May many more be led to a saving knowledge of the truth.”

Writing again to her father, (these extracts are all from letters to her father), Dec. 8, 1851—“It would do your heart good to look in upon my little family—my little ones so confiding affectionate and happy. My heart has again been made glad by the conversion of one of my older pupils, an interesting youth of seventeen. He and the two young women mentioned in a former letter united with the Church at our last communion. I wept for joy at these tokens of the presence of a prayer-answering God.”

Jan. 1, 1852—“Attended the New Years’ feast to-day. Told the people of my plans for building an addition to the schoolhouse, so that I might take more children into my family. They adjourned to the Council-house, and will talk over my propositions there this evening.”

Jan. 3—“The church meeting to-day was very interesting. Five young women offered themselves to the church, were examined and accepted. Most of them state that they found the Saviour last summer. As near as I can learn from their statements it was at the very time when I was so exercised in their behalf. For some time I agonized in prayer; then I became calm, and felt assured that my prayer was heard and would be granted.”

Jan. 4, Sabbath—“An interesting day. Never saw so many of the Tuscaroras present at a religious meeting. Some one who counted them stated that there were nearly one hundred and forty, and all seemed serious and attentive. Bro. B.’s discourse in the forenoon was full of instruction to the young converts. In the afternoon the young women examined yesterday were received into the Church. Eight children were baptized, and the sacrament administered. In the evening I repaired to the council house, where the sacrament was again administered, on account of an aged sister, nearly one hundred years old, too infirm to go to the meeting-house.”

Jan. 5—“Commenced school to-day with twenty-five scholars; have seven girls boarding with me; my little house is too small, but I hope soon to enlarge it, as the Tuscaroras give encouragement that they will take hold and help about building. They hold another council to-day to make necessary arrangements.”

Jan. 6—“A committee of chiefs called on me this morning, and advised me to accept the thirty dollars offered by Mr. E. S. Ely, of Checktowga; it would be needed to purchase the fine lumber, which they can buy cheaper in Canada than in the States. To-morrow they will turn out with their teams and draw logs to mill for the coarse lumber, and next week they will go to Canada for the fine lumber, which Mr. Mt. Pleasant will prepare. When all things are ready they will frame the building, enclose and shingle it.”

Jan. 12, 1852—“Louisa Henry, who seems to be in the last stages of consumption, has been with me since New Year’s; is failing fast; told me when she came that she expected to die soon, and wished to spend her last days with me; does not fear death; takes great delight in prayer and reading the Bible; the 23d Psalm is her favorite portion.”

Jan. 14—“At an inquiry meeting this evening, as Bro. R was absent, I conversed with those who came; explained the parable of ‘The Prodigal Son’ making personal application; three young persons requested prayers; one was only ‘almost persuaded;’ the other two expressed their determination to begin a new life at once; invited Elias Johnson and his brother James to stop after school for a season of prayer: they were both rejoicing in their newly-found Savior, and poured out their souls in fervent prayer; my soul is filled with joy.”

Jan. 19—“Feel quite worn out; thought Louisa dying; watched with her all night; sent for her aunt, who will watch with her to-night.”

Jan. 21—“Bro. R. called; decided to send the little ones home; close school for a few days, and take Louisa to the mission house.”

Jan. 25—“Louisa’s aunt took her home at the instance of the Chiefs, who did not like to have the school interrupted.”

Jan. 26—“Louisa died to-day; her sufferings are over; her happy spirit is doubtless with the ransomed above.”

Jan. 27—“Attended L’s funeral.”

Jan. 28—“Returned to the school-house, where we had an inquiry meeting in the evening; about fifty present, of whom one-half seem seriously inquiring the way to be saved; I conversed with the females; found five indulging a hope; others greatly distressed on account of their sins. Within a few months there have been twenty hopeful conversions.”

Jan. 31—“Met the sisters according to appointment; there was some earnest wrestling with God; had conversation with one who, for many years, has been a backslider, but thinks she has now returned to God.”

Feb. 4—“At the inquiry meeting many were present; several indulging a hope; deep feeling, but no excitement.”

Feb. 7—“At the church meeting thirty-two candidates were examined for admission to the church.”

Feb. 8—“Sabbath; ninety Tuscaroras in attendance upon divine services; a most solemn assembly.”

Feb. 12—“An interesting young converts’ prayer-meeting.”

Feb. 13—“My children all have the whooping cough.”

Feb. 14—“Detained from church meeting by the sick children.”

Feb. 15—“Sabbath; detained from church; though I am much confined by home duties, the work of the Lord prospers; Bro. R. is very faithful, and the Lord crowns his labors with great success. He now numbers fifty new converts; has united several couple in lawful marriage; many drunkards seem to be reclaimed; twelve of my Bible-class have found the Savior; so have three of the little girls that have boarded with me and ten of my day scholars.”

Feb. 17—“I was afraid that I should have to stop teaching and devote myself to the care of my sick children, but their friends took them home last Saturday; it seemed lonesome without them, but little Elizabeth, who seems to love me with all her little heart, cried so much to come back that they could not keep her at home; she is with me now and seems quite happy. Have written to Secretary Treat, urging that Bro. Rockwaod be permitted to remain here; none could be more active and efficient than he now is.”

Feb. 24—“So many children have the whooping-cough that but few attend school. I, also, have a most troublesome cough, and find it difficult to teach; should have to give up if my school was very large, as I have fits of coughing just like the whooping-cough.”

March 4—“My brother in Buffalo sent the sash and doors for my boarding-house; the building is going forward. Miss Howe writes that she will come to my assistance if I need her.”

March 7—“Communion season—forty additions to the church. The old man of seventy and the youth of fourteen bowed together to receive the ordinance of baptism. A scene that angels might rejoice to behold.”

March 8—“Have written to Miss Howe to come on, my health being very poor. Have obtained leave of absence for a few weeks, or months, if I should find it expedient to go on to New York to Dr. Nichols’ Medical Institute.”

March 11—“Several calls from my Tuscarora friends. They are very loth to have me leave, even for a short time, and it is a sore trial for me.”

March 13—“Arrived at my father’s in Lancaster, N. Y.”

March 18—“Wrote in my journal, ‘still at my father’s,’ but thinking continually of my dear Tuscarora children. May I soon be restored to them, invigorated both in body and mind.”

March 23—“Quite unwell; cannot tell how long I shall have to stay away from my school.”

April 26—“Left Lancaster for Tuscarora.”

Mt. Hope, Tuscarora, April 28, 1852—“Once more in my own sweet home, greeted by the sparkling eyes and smiling faces of my dear children. Found Miss Howe nearly worn out and glad to be relieved.

“There have been several deaths during my absence—some among my scholars. Several calls this evening from my adopted people, who seem so glad to see me.”

April 29—“Resumed my duties in the school-room.”

May 1—Sabbath—“Rising early went on foot with my little girls, though the road was muddy, reached the meeting house before 9 A. M., in time for Sunday-school, sacrament in the afternoon. Five received into the church —three of them my scholars. So thankful to be once more with my beloved Tuscaroras.”

May 18—“Have had to relinquish my school again to Miss Howe, I am too feeble for school duties.”

June 22—“A week ago yesterday almost the whole nation turned out to help at the “raising.” The excitement of the day was so great that I could sleep but little that night; so happy! The Lord be praised. How mountains of difficulties have vanished. The Tuscaroras are doing nobly; but, besides their work, to finish and furnish all will require about four hundred dollars; this will take all my funds, but when I need more, I know that the Lord will provide. Have already expended nearly one hundred dollars, yet, I trust there will be no lack. Donations are coming in from various quarters.”

July 23—“How different my labors this summer from those of last winter. Unable to teach, have given my school to another; nor, am I able to visit much among the people. Occupy my time chiefly in taking care of my little girls, teaching them to sew, and preparing bedding for my contemplated boarding school; thankful that I may do a little, though I long to do more.”

Sept. 3—“Being unable to teach, and thinking that I might do more good here, if ever, to study medicine, having consulted my friends and Mr. Treat, I shall go to Philadelphia to attend medical lectures. Have bade adieu to my humble home, not to return before next February.”

Miss Thayer returned from Philadelphia in February, 1853. Miss Mary Walker had taught the school during her absence. Shortly after her return to Mt. Hope, Miss Abigail Peck and Miss Cinderella Britto arrived, the former to teach school, the latter to assist in housework, Miss Thayer to have general supervision as matron of the boarding school. The American Board doubled their appropriation, so that each one of the ladies were to receive one hundred dollars a year, and find their own board. Miss Thayer taking it upon herself to meet the other expenses of the school. Timely donations in money were received from Philadelphia, Brooklyn and New York, and various small sums; also boxes of clothing and some provision from friends in neighboring towns.

March 23—Miss Thayer writes: “Have received one hundred dollars from the Sunday school in Mr. Barnes’ church, for my building; have hired two carpenters to do the inside work, it having been framed, shingled, enclosed, and most of the lathing done, by the Tuscaroras. My health is failing again and my mind much racked with planning, as my associates each want a separate room for their own private use, I have been obliged to vary from my original plan so as to secure pleasant rooms for them with chimneys for stoves.”

May 7—“The building goes forward rather slowly, and my associates are becoming somewhat impatient on account of the delay; yet we shall have a better finished and more commodious house than I had at first planned. Though very much worn both in body and mind, I do not regret having undertaken the work. Am more and more convinced that the only hope for the moral and physical well-being of the Tuscaroras is to train up the children in the way they should go. The work is begun, and the Lord is able to carry it forward, either with or without me.”

Miss Thayer’s health continued poor and she took a vacation of four weeks, in the summer, leaving her associates in charge. Then wrote to Mr. Treat that she should be obliged to give up the management of financial affairs, and asking them to assume the responsibility.

To confer with him on the subject, Mr. Treat requested Mr. Rockwood, Miss Thayer and her associates to meet him in Buffalo, where he would stop on his way to the meeting of the American Board at Cincinnati. The result of the conference: The boarding school was transferred to the immediate care of the Board, with Mr. Rockwood as Superintendent; the ladies to retain their respective positions—teacher, house-keeper and matron. From this time Miss Thayer felt greatly fettered, and the impression grew upon her that her presence was not desired at Mt. Hope; that her usefulness there was at an end. Long and prayerfully did she weigh the matter, and at last, though it nearly broke her heart, she asked to be dismissed from the field. Her request was granted, and Miss Thayer closed her labors at Mt. Hope, December 31, 1853, and longed to die. It was the saddest day of her life, the bitterest trial she ever experienced, this giving up all her hopes of usefulness among her beloved Tuscaroras. She knew not whither to go; could not tell the people what she had done.

Samuel Jacobs was going to Cattaraugus, and Miss Thayer went with him, hoping the Lord would give her work to do there. Engaged temporarily in teaching, was there until the latter part of July, 1854; in August applied to the Presbyterian Board for an appointment as missionary teacher for one of their schools among the Southwestern Indians, which was granted, and she was sent to the Chickasaws, in the Indian Territory; arrived there in November, 1854; labored among the Chickasaws, Creeks and Choctaws until September, 1865, when again broken down in health, she reluctantly gave up the work of a missionary teacher, and returned to her father’s house in Bristol, Wis., accompanied by her husband, (Theodore Jones), and her three young children (two sons and a daughter). She has since resided in Bristol, Wis., on the farm given to her by her father and brothers, a quiet, pleasant home. Her children are growing up in the fear of the Lord, having all of them, five years ago, (in April, 1873), united with the Congregational church in Bristol. Although she has not the means to give them a liberal education, she hopes that they will be useful workers in the Lord’s vineyard.

Mrs. Jones often thinks of her beloved Tuscaroras, and would gladly visit them if it were not for the expense of such a journey.

Mrs. Jones has culled the material for the foregoing pages from numerous letters written to her father, from Tuscarora, and also made extracts from her private journal, kept whilst at Tuscarora, and she gives Elias Johnson leave to embody such portions of it in his history of the Tuscaroras as shall best suit his purpose. She sends herewith Mr. Treat’s reply to her request to be released from the work at Mt. Hope; also a letter written by the Tuscarora chiefs, representing her departure from their people.”


“February 22, 1878.

“Bristol, Wis.”

To ELIAS JOHNSON, Tuscarora.

* * * * *


About the year 1800, a new religion was introduced among the Six Nations, who alleged to have received a revelation from the Great Spirit, with a commission to preach to them the new doctrine in which he was instructed.

This revelation was received in circumstances so remarkable and the precepts which he sought to inculcate, contained in themselves such evidences of wisdom and beneficence, that he was universally received among them, not only as a wise and good man, but as one commissioned by the Great Spirit to become their religious teacher, by the name of Ga-ne-o-di-yo, or “Handsomelake.” This new religion, as it has ever since been called, with all the ancient and new doctrines, was also taught, strenuously, the doctrine of Temperance, which seemed to be the main and ultimate object of his mission, and upon which he chiefly used his influence and eloquence through the remainder of his life. He went from village to village, among the several nations of the Iroquois, and continuing his visits from year to year, preaching the new doctrine with remarkable effect; many abandoned their dissolute habits and became sober and moral men.

The wholesome doctrine of sobriety was not preached in vain, even among the Tuscaroras; nevertheless, they did not embrace the ancient and the new faith, nor its ceremonies, but the preaching of this singular person. The influence of his eloquence, with which he enforced the doctrine of temperance, had the effect of forming a temperance society, which was kept up a number of years, by holding meetings and by lectures given by the leading men of the nation, until the year 1830, when a regular temperance society was organized, which was based on a written constitution; and in the year 1832 there was a general temperance society formed at the Cattaraugus Reservation, embracing all the, then, different Seneca Reservations; and in the year 1833 the Tuscaroras reorganized so as to be connected with the Seneca temperance society, organized at Cattaraugus. I found the following articles in the records of the Tuscarora temperance society, to-wit:

“Temperance Society, formed among the Tuscaroras, February 19th, 1830, re-organized January 27th, 1833.


“Whereas, Present and past occurrences clearly prove that intemperance is a great and destructive evil; therefore,_Resolved, That we, the chiefs and warriors of the Tuscarora Nation, will do all in our power to arrest its progress, both in this village and elsewhere.”

Experience has taught us that efforts to advance this good cause are not in vain, encouraged by what we have already effected, we have conceded to re-organize our society, which shall be named and governed as follows:—


“Article 1. This society shall be denominated the Temperance Society auxiliary to the general Temperance Society formed at Cattaraugus, March 1st, 1832, by our red brothers from five different Reservations.

“Article 2. It shall embrace individuals of both sexes of men, women and children.

“Article 3. We who sign our names to this constitution, solemnly pledge ourselves to abstain entirely from the use of intoxicating liquors, and persuade others in an affectionate, faithful manner to do the same, not suffering it to be used in our families, nor purchasing it for those in our employ.

“Article 4. It shall be the duty of those who were appointed a committee by the general Temperance Society to visit the members of this Society individually, and enquire whether they adhere to or strictly obey the articles of the constitution, and converse with others on the subject of temperance, so far as practicable, and make a report of their doings to the Society.

“Article 5. The officers of this Society shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer. The duty of the President shall be as follows, viz: To open the meetings by calling the assembly to orders to appoint the time for meeting; to settle questions in any discussions made in the Society; to appoint the speakers. The duty of the Secretary shall be to minute the proceedings of every meeting, and read the report at the close of every meeting, and to keep in record the names of the members of the Society. The Treasurer shall keep in charge the revenues of the contributions, and attend to the lights.”

Names of the first officers of this Society:

President—Nicholas Cusick.

Vice-President—William Mt. Pleasant.

Secretary and Treasurer—James N. Cusick.

Names of Chiefs at that time:

William Chew, William Printup,

Jonathan Printup, Mathew Jack,

John Mt. Pleasant, John Johnson,

John Fox, George Printup,

Isaa Miller.

This united Temperance Society held a yearly convention on the different Reservations, alternately, for a number of years, but the interest in the convention gradually declined, until the convention was entirely given up. Afterwards they somewhat remodeled the constitution to suit their circumstances, and added the following article, viz:

“In the temperance assemblies the following subjects are to be lectured on: Temperance, Industry, Education and Moral Reform.”

We have also a cornet band, which is connected with the temperance society, which enliven and cheer the meetings by the sweet strains of their music, and adds very much to the interest of each meeting. This band goes by the name of the “Tuscarora Temperance Cornet Band.” It was organized in the year 1842, and has existed continually to the present time, in 1880.

On the 11th day of November, 1844, there was a delegation sent here by the Tuscaroras, from Grand River, then Canada West, now Ontario, to connect themselves with our temperance society, which was granted them, and the following delegates were admitted, viz: William Green, a Sachem; David Hill, Jacob Hill, Rev. Nicholas Smith and Thomas Thomas.

This society was afterwards invited to hold a temperance meeting on the Tuscarora Reservation at Grand River, Ontario, with the view of organizing a temperance society in conjunction to ours. The meeting was held according to the time designated. The meetings were opened and conducted with much interest, but dissolved without the formation of a society. There was a disagreement concerning the constitution of the society, respecting the subjects of discussion in the meetings of the society. The Canada Indians wished to have the three other subjects, from that of temperance, to bestricken out, but the Tuscaroras of the States adhered to the forms of the constitution of their society, which includes Industry, Education and Moral Reform, as the subject of lecture of each meeting, which was adopted at anearly period.

In the autumn of 1862, the cornet band and a number of the members of the society made a visit to Grand River, Ontario, among their Indian brethren, and when they arrived there the Sons of Temperance had a social party, to which we were very cordially invited to participate of the sumptous feast, which was already prepared, and were two days devoted to temperance meetings. The time was taken up by lectures on temperance and music by the two cornet bands, which played their music alternately, and added very much to the interest of the meetings. The speeches were interspersed with the rehearsals of the different traditions of the causes of the declension of the Indian nations, and regretting the slowness of the progress of their civilization, and attribute to temperance, to be the great cause of the retard of their advancement in industry and civilization.

They were invited several limits by these, our Canada red brothers, to their Sons of Temperance conventions at Grand River, of which they faithfully attended, and they were also invited at one of their conventions held at Monseetown, near London, Ontario, on the reservation of the Oneidas: our cornet band and quite a number of the members of our society complied to the invitation. The meetings were very interesting. There were many speeches made on the subject of temperance, and on various topics for the advancement of the respective Indian nations. A speech was also made by the author of this book, which began as follows, to-wit:

“My dear friends and relatives. I have been interested in the great and good cause of temperance for a number of years, and have attended many meetings and assemblies in the temperance cause, but this, our present gathering, is to me, unusually interesting; it brings my mind back for more than a century, when the Tuscaroras were broken down, as a nation, by the pale faces, and expelled from their long-cherished homes, and driven from the graves of our noble ancestors, into the wild and cold-hearted world: and when they were without a friend and without a home, and no one to pity them, in this, their time of trouble. You, the Oneidas, gave us the hand of friendship and brotherly love, and gave us peaceful homes within your wide extended domain, and whispered in our ears the words of consolation; when, and how shall we ever forget or repay you for the unbounded kindness that your fathers exercised towards ours? We have ever given you a place nearest our hearts, with all its affections, here we give you our hands and our hearts in the great and good cause of temperance, and we wish you prosperity in every sense of the word both temporally and morally.”

This convention was denominated the Six Nations Sons of Temperance Convention, although we, from the States were not members of that order. It seems that they deemed it not derogatory to their dignity that we should be present at their conventions, although ours is a common, open and free, temperance society.

We, also, invited them to hold their convention on our reservation, which was acceded to and held in the fall of 1865, and there were delegates of several Oneidas, from Monseetown, Ontario, and of the Tuscaroras, from Grand River, Ontario, and also a cornet band of the Onondagas, from Onondaga Castle, N. Y., which favored us with the sweet strains of their music, alternately, with our cornet band.

Every morning the assembly would meet at the school-house, Mt. Hope, at 10 o’clock, A. M., and there form in procession and march to the council-house, about one mile, to the place of meeting: the two cornet bands played their music while the procession was moving, and our temperance banners were floating in the air, as if to say, rally round the temperance banner.

Our temperance banner was made in the year 1844, by our people, assisted by, then, our Missionery, Rev. G. Rockwood. It is illustrated by several animals illustrative of the several clans that are in the nation; and also, six stars that are grouped in the upper corner of the banner, next to the pole, indicative, as in the animals, of the several clans, that they, aught, also, group together and combine as in one, to work against the great monster, intemperance, which is also illustrated by a seven-headed serpent. As this monster is formidable, so aught we abstain from all intoxicating liquors. There is also, a great eagle soaring in the air, in the act of grasping the great seven-headed serpent. This illustrates that in our endeavers in the capacity of a society, to defeat the great monster—intemperance—we have a helper, which is the Legislature of the State of New York and the United States, in enacting laws to the effect of staying the great tide of intemperance among the Indians, in which weshould take courage.

There was another convention held here in 1873, when there was quite a large delegation of the Oneidas, from Monseetown, Ontario, and also from Grand River, Ontario, among them was the Tuscarora cornet band of Grand River. The meetings were occupied by lectures on temperance and on other topics, which were thought to be the most needed for the advancement of the social and moral conditions of our red brethren.

The Grand River cornet band, and ours, played, alternately, their angelic melodies, to cheer us in the great temperance cause. It was then the convention of the Sons of Temperance urged upon us to adopt their Order, but our people thought it not advisable to change the order of our society, as it has existed since the year 1830; the form may be different, but the object is the same. We said we preferred to adhere to the old form of our society, open to all, and free to partake of the benefits of it, we prayed them God’s speed in their turning the great wheel of temperance, and we should lay hold on the same wheel and turn the same way. That same night the convention closed. There was a great bonfire made in the street; and then there was a general farewell, hand-shaking, and it closed with music from the bands in the dead of the night.

The next convention was held at Grand River, Ontario, in October, 1874, in the Six Nation council-house. There was quite a large representation of the Six Nations. Speeches were made on the subject of temperance by all the different nations, to-wit:

Mr. Josiah Hill, Sachem, of Grand River, Tuscarora.

Mr. David Hill, Sachem, of Grand River, Seneca.

Mr. Levi Jonathan, Sachem, of Grand River, Onondaga.

Mr. Clinch, Sachem, of Grand River, Mohawk.

Mr. James Jemison, of Grand River, Cayuga.

Mr. Eligah, of Monseetown, Oneida.

Mr. William Patterson, Sachem, of Lewiston, Tuscarora.

Dea. Samuel Jacobs, of Lewiston, Tuscarora.

Mr. William Chew, of Lewiston, Tuscarora.

Mr. Elias Johnson, of Lewiston, Tuscarora.

The winter after the meetings above, a communication was received by the Secretary of our society, Dea. Samuel Jacobs, from the Tuscaroras of Grand River, Ontario, wishing him to forward to them a copy of the constitution of our temperance society, and stating that they wish to form a society based upon the same, which was deferred by Dea. Jacobs until the June following, when Dea. Jacobs, Wm. Patterson, Rev. Thomas Green and Wm. Chew went to Grand River with the constitution. After it was read in their meeting, the Canadian brothers adopted it and formed a society based on the same. It was then proposed and adopted that a convention should be held in the Six Nations council-house, at Grand River, Ontario, in October, 1875. Accordingly the convention duly met and continued three days. Our cornet band was present, with quite a number of the members of our society. The meetings were very pleasant and interesting. The officers were as follows, to-wit:

President—Wm. Chew, of Lewiston

Vice-President—John Hill, of Grand River

Secretary—Josiah Hill, of Grand River

Before the convention closed it was decided that the next convention should be at the Tuscorora Reservation, Lewiston, N. Y., on the 17th day of October, 1876, and the officers appointed were as follows, to-wit:

President—Josiah Hill, of Grand River.

Vice-President—Dea. Samuel Jacobs, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Secretary—Elias Johnson, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Just before the appointed time for the convention to meet, there was a communication received by Mr. John Mt. Pleasant, our head chief, from A. Sim Logan, of Cattaraugas Reservation, N. Y., being leader of the Seneca national cornet band, asking the privilege of attending the contemplated convention with his band. The letter was read at one of the temperance meetings and was not only acceded to, but they were cordially invited to attend, and on the 17th day of October, 1876, the day appointed for the convention, they were on hand. A. Sims Logan, with his national cornet band, of Cattaraugus, and Levi Jonathan, with his Tuscasora cornet band, of Grand River, and Solomon Cusick, with his temperance cornet band, of Lewiston, N. Y, were present, which comprise the three leading bands of music of any nations of Indians.

The programme was substantially as follows:

The meeting was called to order by the president, Josiah Hill, of Grand River.

A hymn was sung by the assembly, in the Indian language, words, “Oh, for a thousand tongues to sing my Redeemer’s praise;” tune, Dundee.

Prayer by Dea. Samuel Jacobs, of Lewiston, N. Y.

The following were chosen as committees of arrangements to-wit:

Mr. Wm. Chew, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. Win. Printup, of Lewiston, N.Y.

Mr. Joseph Henry, of Grand River, Ont.

Mr. George Beaver, of Grand River, Ont.

Mr. Wm. Nephew, of Cattaraugus, N. Y.

Mr. Wm. Printup made the congratulatory speech of the meeting through an intrepreter, Joseph Henry.

The speakers of the first session were as follows, to-wit:

Mr. Levi Jonathan, of Grand River, Ont., on Temperance.

Dea. Samuel Jacobs, of Lewiston, N.Y., on Moral Reform.

Mr. Joseph Henry, of Grand River, Ont., on Industry.

Mr. A. Sim Logan, of Cattaraugus, N. Y., on Education

The Tuscarora cornet band favored this session with music between the speeches.

Adjourned at 2 o’clock P. M. and convened again at 5 o’clock P.M.

The assembly was called to order by the president.

The following were the speakers, to-wit.

Mr. Simon Carrier, of Grand River, Ont.

Mr. Josiah Hill, of Grand River, Ont.

Mr. William Anderson, of Grand River, Ont.

Mr. Wm. Chew, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. John Mt. Pleasant, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. Elias Johnson, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. Wm. Nephew, of Cattaraugus, N. Y.

Music was favored the second session by the Seneca national band, of Cattaraugus. N. Y.

Adjourned at 8:30 o’clock P. M. to 10 o’clock A. M. to-morrow, after singing the tune Greenville, words, “Savior, Visit Thy Plantation.”

Benediction by Rev Thomas Green.

Oct. 18.—The assembly was called to order by the Vice-President. Dea. Samuel Jacobs, of Lewiston, at 10 o’clock A.M. Opened by singing an Indian hymn Prayer by Rev. Thomas Green, of Lewiston, N. Y.

The following were the speakers, to-wit:

Mr. Thomas Williams, of Grand River.

Mr. George Beaver, of Grand River.

Mr. John C. Lay, of Cattaraugus.

Adjourned at 1:30 o’clock P. M. to 4 P. M.

The assembly was called to order at 4 o’clock P. M. by the President.

The following were the speakers, to-wit:

Mr. John John, of Grand River.

Mr. Levi Jonathan, of Grand River.

Dr. Bombry, of Grand River.

President Josiah Hill, of Grand River.

Mr. Albert Cusick, of Onondaga Castle.

Mr. Abram Hill, of Onondaga Castle.

Rev. Thomas Green, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. John Mt. Pleasant, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. William Patterson, of Lewiston, N. Y.

Mr. Marvin Crows, of Cattaraugus, N. Y.

This forenoon we were favored with music by our temperance cornet band between the speeches.

In the afternoon session we were favored with music by C. C. Lay’s orchestra band, of Cattaraugus, N. Y.

President Hill in the chair, business was resumed.

Mr. John C. Lay moved that the next convention be held on the Cattaraugus Reservation, N. Y. This was followed by a motion of Levi Jonathan, that the next convention be held at Grand River, Ontario, who claimed that they had adopted the constitution, while the Senecas had not. After some discussion, A. Sim Logan said, “If you will give us a copy of your constitution, we will accept of it and form a society based on the same.”

It was then put to vote and carried that the next convention should be held at Cattaraugus, N. Y., on the 25th day of September, 1877.

The following officers were appointed, viz:

Mr. Elias Johnson. Tuscarora, of Lewiston, N. Y., President.

Mr. Josiah Hill, Tuscarora, of Grand River, Vice-President.

Dr. Bombry, Cayuga, of Grand River, Secretary.

On the evening of October 25th, as aforesaid, the convention duly met, and was called to order by the President, E. Johnson; opened by singing and prayer. Business was then resumed. The Secretary not being present, Prof. Chancy C. Jemison, of Cattaraugus, was appointed to fill the vacancy.

The committee of arrangements was as follows, viz:

Mr. John Canada, Seneca, of Cattaraugus.

Mr. A. Sim Logan, Seneca, of Cattaraugus.

Mr. Job King, Seneca, of Cattaraugus.

Mr. Levi Jonathan, Onondaga, of Grand River.

Mr. James Jemison, Cayuga, of Grand River.

Mr. Josiah Hill, Tuscarora, of Grand River.

Mr. John Mt. Pleasant, Tuscarora, of Lewiston.

Mr. Wm. Chew, Tuscarora, of Lewiston.

Mr. Daniel La Fort, Onondaga, of Syracuse, N. Y.

Mr. Abram Hill, Oneida, of Syracuse, N. Y.

The convention continued three days. Many speeches were made by the leading men of the several nations that were represented. The meetings were unusually interesting. Every speaker seemed to be moved to the utmost of their enthusiasm. The congregations were large, and every face seemed to glow with the interest that was awakened in the great cause of temperance. The order and decorum that prevailed throughout all the meetings was becoming to any Community.

There were also four cornet bands which favored the assemblies with music, in their proper times, which added very much to the interest of the convocation. The bands were as follows, to-wit:

Mr. A. Sim Logan’s national cornet band, of Cattaraugus, N. Y.

Mr. Chester C. Lay’s silver cornet band, of the same place.

Mr. Levi Jonathan’s Tuscarora cornet band, of Grand River, Ontario.

Mr. Enos Johnson’s temperance cornet band, of Tuscarora, N. Y.

On the morning of the last day of the convention before the services began, the four cornet bands consolidated in one, which made over fifty members, and played several tunes together outside of the Presbyterian church, in which the convention was held, and made a rousing band of music.

The first article of the constitution, which reads thus: “This society shall be denominated the Temperance Society,” was amended so as to read thus: “This society shall be denominated the Six Nations Temperance Society of the United States and Canada.”

The assembly was then called to sign the temperance pledge of this society. There were upwards of two hundred that signed, most of whom resided on the reservation in which the convention was held; but there were some from the Tonawanda, Alleghany and Onondaga reservations, and also one Oneida, from Green Bay, Wis.

The Onondagas and Tonawandas made application for a copy of the constitution to be sent to them, that they might form temperance societies on their respective reservations, which was granted them, and Mr. Josiah Hill was appointed to write the copy and send the same to them.

The convention adjourned on the evening of the third day to meet again the next year at Grand River, Ontario.


Mr. John Canada, Seneca, of Cattarauguh, President.

Mr. Wm. Patterson, Tuscarora, of Lewiston, N. Y., Vice-President.

Mr. Josiah Hill, Tuscarora, of Grand River, Secretary.

Mr. John Mt. Pleasant, Tuscarora, of Lewiston, N. Y., Treasurer.

It will be seen by the above that the Tuscaroras have not been altogether idle on the subject of temperance. The temptations of intemperance surrounding our reservation are great. We hope that the legislature will aid us in enacting more rigid laws, for the temptation is working even in cider, which seems to be more intoxicating now than in former times.

* * * * *

Friendship of the Tuscaroras to the United States.

The Tuscarora Indians have for more than a century been a firm friend to the United States. In the Revolutionary war they took an active part for the declaration of independence; many took part, but few were enrolled, consequently, but few that drew pension from the United States. For instance, Nicholas Cusick, a Tuscarora Indian; where shall you look for another instance of friendship, greater than his, towards the distinguished Marquis de Lafayette, or for christian principle more firm and true than he evinced concerning his pension.

In the war of the Revolution he was under command of Lafayette. Many years after peace was concluded, as he was passing through Washington, he accidentally heard the name of his old commander spoken of in the office in which he stopped on business. The moment his ear caught the sound, his eyes brightened, and full of earnestness he asked, “Is he yet alive?” “Yes,” was the reply, “he is alive and looking well and hearty.” With decided emphasis, he said, “I am glad to hear it.” “Then you knew Lafayette, Mr. Cusick?” “Oh, yes;” he answered. “I knew him well, and many a time in battle threw myself between him and the bullets, for I loved him.”

On asking him if he had a commission, he said, “Yes; General Washington gave me one, and he was Lieutenant.” This suggested to his friends that he was entitled to a pension, and on looking over the records, the truth of what he said was confirmed, and he received one for several years.

Afterwards, congress passed a law making it necessary that each recipient should swear that he could not live without the pension. When the old warrior was called upon to do this, he said, “Now, here is my little log cabin, and it is my own; here is my patch of ground, where I raise my corn and beans, and there is lake Oneida, where I can catch fish; with these I can make out to live without the pension, and to say that I could not, would be to lie to the Great Spirit.”

This is the honor of the Tuscarora hero. How many among those of the white people who receive a pension would have done likewise, for conscience sake. Cusick could speak the English language very well, but when he made an audible prayer, or said grace at the table, he used his native Tuscarora language, “because,” said he, “when I speak in English, I am often at a loss for a word; when, therefore, I speak to the Great Spirit, I do not like to be perplexed, or have my mind distracted to look after a word, when I use my own language, it is like my breath, I am composed.” In this is exemplified that he fully understood the reverence which was due to the great Architect of the universe.

Solomon Longboard, also a Tuscarora Sachem, took an active part in the Revolutionary war, with many others of his nation. In one of their scouting parties, he, with others, was taken captive by the British Indians and brought to fort Niagara, where they were kept for some time, and urged to take up arms and fight against the revolutionists. Finally, this celebrated sachem, Longboard, held a secret council among the captives, and instructed them all to take arms and advance with the British Indians, and use their influence to lead them to a place where they might be captured, and they with the rest, which they successfully effected, and were re-captured by the Americans. Instead of gaining honor and laurels to his crown, he was to be sentenced to be shot as a traitor, but through the entreaties of the Tuscarora chiefs, and the influence of the feasibility of their story that was made on the executives, he was released, but never drew pension as did Mr. Cusick.

The Tuscaroras again evinced their friendship for the United States in the war of 1812, when they were asked to guard the Niagara river at Lewiston and down the river, against the British crossing it.

Here again we hear of the Tuscarora sachem, Solomon Longboard, with about thirty-five Tuscarora volunteers, stationed at Lewiston on guard. I have recorded some of the names of these volunteers, which I was able to obtain from some of the old people that were yet living in the year 1878, which are as follows, to-wit: The two sons of Solomon Longboard, Jacob Taylor, Joseph Cusick, John Cusick, David Cusick, John Black Nose and his brother, Samuel Thompson, John Obediah, Aaron Pempleton, James Pempleton, John Mt. Pleasant, Harry Patterson, John Green, Isaac Allen, Capt. Williams, Gau-ya-re-na-twa, Wm. Printup, better known as little Billy, Black Chief, John Printup, Isaac Green, Surgin Green, George Printup. There were but few of these that drew pension, as it was alleged that they were not enrolled upon the army roll.

On the night of December 19th, 1813, the British army and British Indians crossed the Niagara River near Calvin Hotchkis’ place, about two miles below Lewiston. They noticed at first there were lights going across the river during the night, and at the dawn of day were despatched, Jacob Taylor (better known as Colonel Jacobs), and another Indian to accompany him—both being Tuscaroras. On their return they reported that the British Indians had crossed the river in great numbers. The news was circulated in the village of Lewiston and the neighboring country, that they might evacuate their places and go east, which they did, taking the Ridge road. The Tuscarora volunteers took the rear of the train as they moved eastward, commanded by their Sachem, Solomon Longboard.

The British Indians went on the pursuit. After they had gone about two miles from the village of Lewiston, where the Tuscarora Indians branched off on a road leading to their reservation, known as the Indian hill, or Mountain road. As they had advanced part way up the mountain they observed a Canada Indian on horseback, who headed off some of the train, and among the rest was also Bates Cooke, of Lewiston. One of his legs had, a little previous to that time, been amputated, and the main Canada force were about half a mile in the rear on pursuit. The commander of the Tuscarora force ordered that the Indian heading off the train be shot, which was done by John Obediah. The Indian tumbled off the horse and fell to the ground, and then got up and ran down the little hill into the wood, where it is said he died from the wound he received.

When the report of the gun was heard by the Canadian force and they saw the effect it had on their comrade, they halted. Their commander, Mr. Longboard, of the Tuscaroras which numbered at that time twenty-six, from them selected three men and instructed them to get upon and to go along the top of the mountain and to blow a horn occasionally, which they had in their possession, and to keep nearly opposite the Canada Indians. The object was to serve as a scare-crow, to make them believe that there was a force also on the mountain in the act of flanking them. But the remaining force of Mr. Longboard rushed down the mountain with their war whoops as if legion were coming down, and pursued the Canada Indians, while the train of white people had gone on in their flight. The Canada Indians retreated about one mile and a half, near to where the main force were. Then one of their men halted and aimed his gun at one of our men, John Obediah, and the latter also aimed to his opponent, while Samuel Thompson got behind a large elm tree. In the meantime, John Obediah spoke to the stranger in all the different six languages of the Iroquois, but did not get an answer. These were the only two men in pursuit at this time, as the rest of them had halted some ways back. Finally the British Indian retreated backwards, keeping aim as he went, and all at once gave a spring and ran off. The three men that were on the mountain kept occasionally blowing the horn as they went, as the road is parallel with the mountain.

By this time the train of white people had gone quite a good ways in their flight: it is evident that the timely intervention of the Tuscarora Indians, saved great slaughter of men, women and children among the white people.

The Tuscaroras then went back and kept in the rear of the white people in their flight. The British Indians perceiving that it was the Tuscarora Indians that killed one of their number and repulsed them, made their way to their reservation, (the nation had already deserted their homes), and began to burn their houses indiscriminately, and also a meeting-house which was built by them, except eight dollars, a convenient chapel where the early christian Tuscaroras such as Sacaresa and Solomon Longboard, both sachems, with many others, delighted to worship the Almighty in the simplicity of their faith. And after they had finished their destruction they went down in pursuit of the fleeing train of white people on the ridge road: by this time the Tuscaroras had stationed themselves at a log house, eight or ten miles from Lewiston, near Nathan Peterson’s, which was used as an armory; when the Tuscaroras first came, there were a few white men there breaking open the powder kegs in this log house, making it ready to set on fire but the chief, Mr. Longboard, remonstrated in having it burned, and was interpreted to them by Colonel Jacobs, so they consented not to destroy the powder.

When the British Indians came in sight, Mr. Longboard instructed his men to keep moving back and forth from the log house or armory, to a thicket in the rear of the house, for the purpose of making the enemy believe that there was a large force stationed there; the enemy halted and finally went back, and thus the armory was saved. The manouvre of the Tuscarora Indians in these two cases above, was done with but very little sacrifice on their part, but the beneficence was great; but then, who cares anything about that, it was nothing but an Indian affair anyhow; this will probably be the thought of those who peruse my little pages.

When the Tuscaroras evacuated their reservation they went to Oneida Castle and remained there during the war. In about the last part of June, 1814, there was a company of volunteers composed of about thirty Tuscaroras and a number of Oneida Indians, that started from Oneida Castle to Sackett’s Harbor, to join themselves to an army that was commanded by General Brown; on their way there, when they arrived at Tonawanda. an officer came to them and asked where they were going; they answered, “to Sackett’s Harbor, to join General Brown’s army.” The officer said, “that is right;” he then asked them if they lacked anything, and they said, “nothing more than being short of victuals, but we can get along with what game we can procure on the way.” The officer then gave them one dollar each and told them to go and buy some bread.

They then went on, and on the 3rd or 4th of July they crossed the river from Sackett’s Harbor, and on the 4th, they, with General Brown and his army approached an intrenchment of General Riall’s, which was in a strong position. Brown told the Tuscaroras that he with his army would attack the enemy direct, “but,” said he, “you must go around and attack the enemy on their flank.”

It is acceded by all American nations, that the characteristic of the Indians in their war battles, is to fight in scouting and to attack by surprise: consequently, it seems that General Riall instructed the British Indians, which numbered several hundred, that when he was attacked, they the Indians, should move and attack their enemy also on the flank; it seems that they moved in the shape of a V with the two points foremost. On the 5th occurred the battle of Chippewa; the contest was obstinate and bloody; the Tuscarora Indians in moving on the flank of Brown’s army, they entered in the enemy’s moving V of British Indians, and when they arrived at the fork, and not until then, did the Tuscaroras know where they were; but, nevertheless, they all made the war-whoop, fired and made a desperate charge at one point and broke through the ranks of the enemy. Strange as it may seem, there was but one wounded and that slightly on the cheek, and not one killed; it was a very close contest, we getting away with the loss of but a few guns and coats, for when the enemy took hold of their coats they would only pull off and run. It was then that the enemy’s V closed in on the rear of the Tuscaroras and the bloody scene began; the enemy fired against themselves, and not until they had completely destroyed themselves did they discover in what frenzy they were; but at length the Americans were victorious. These same Tuscaroras were present at the memorable battle at Bridgewater near Niagara Falls, where a desperate engagement, it is said, ensued, commencing about sunset and lasting until midnight, where Generals Brown and Scott were wounded.

In every instance when the United States were in trouble, the Tuscaroras were ever ready to sacrifice their blood upon the American altar, which they again fully evinced in the war of the rebellion, when twenty-three of the Tuscarora Indian warriors enlisted as volunteers in the United States army, some of whom died in the service of the country; but some were spared by the good Providence, and were permitted yet to share the sweets of home; some inherited diseases which they will probably carry down to their graves.

In the year 1862 Cornelius C. Cusick, a grandson of Nicholas Cusick, the revolutionist, was commissioned to the office of Second Lieutenant. There were four other Tuscaroras mustered in with him in the 3d N. Y. Volunteers, 132d Reg’t, Co. D, to-wit: Jeremiah Peters, John Peters, Hulett Jacobs, George Garlow, and there are others who enlisted afterwards at different times during the war, to wit:

Twelfth N. Y. Vol’s, Cav., Co. M.—Ozias Chew, John Pempleton, Charles Pempleton, Nichodemus Thompssn.

Bat. K, 1st N. Y. Light Art.—Samuel Bearfoot (Ely Patterson), Wm. Joseph (Lewis Patterson), Alexander John (Davis Miller), Zhacariah Johnson (Elijah Johnson), Wm. Anderson (Samuel Jack).

Clinton Mt. Pleasant, 3Oth, transferred to 31st N. J. Vol’s. Inv. colored brigade.

Wilson Jacobs, 1st N. Y., Vet. Cav., Co. M.

Edward Spencer (Edward Anderson), Inv. sway. Co. A. 17th Corps.

Alvis D. Hewett, 151st N. Y. Vol’s.

Thomas Cornelius, Co. K, 2d N. Y. Mounted Rifles.

Charles Green, 120th N. Y. Vol’s, Co. K.

John Longboard, Samuel Mt. Pleasant.

During the war, Cornelius C. Cusick was promoted to First Lieutenant, and at the close of the war he was promoted to Captain. He was some time afterwards commissioned into the regular army of the United States as First Lieutenant.